Interventions for waterpipe smoking cessation
One traditional method of smoking tobacco, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), is the waterpipe, in which smoke passes through a reservoir of water before inhalation by the smoker. The waterpipe, known as narjeela in formal Arabic, goes by various local names such as shisha, narghile, arghile, and hookah. Although waterpipe use was uncommon in most of the world before the 1990s, it has enjoyed a recent resurgence, and is now spreading into areas where there was no previous tradition of use. Many waterpipe smokers believe that waterpipe smoking is a safer alternative to cigarettes; which is an apparent misperception, given the available evidence. Given the global increase in waterpipe smoking, and evidence that many users become dependent and have difficulty quitting on their own, waterpipe-specific tobacco cessation interventions are required. This review aims to summarize the evidence available regarding smoking cessation interventions for waterpipe smokers.